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What is

Conjunctivitis, commonly known as “pink eye,” is the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, which is the transparent membrane that covers the white part of the eye (sclera) and lines the inner surface of the eyelids. The conjunctiva contains blood vessels and helps lubricate the eye by producing mucus and tears.

Risk Factors


Eye Redness

Redness in the white of the eye or inner eyelids.

Watery or discharge from one or both eyes. The discharge may be clear, white, yellow, or greenish.

Gritty or scratchy feeling in the affected eye(s).

Itchiness and irritation in the eyes.

Sensitivity to light (photophobia).

Patients often have difficulty concentrating or memory problems.

Very frequently the Eyes get swollen and become difficult to open the Eyes 

Symptoms may include dryness, redness, irritation, blurry vision, and sensitivity to light. These conditions can arise due to factors like age, environmental influences, health conditions, medications, and lifestyle choices.

Treatment Types

Artificial Tears

These lubricating eye drops or ointments are available over-the-counter. They help supplement natural tears, providing relief for dryness and discomfort. Some formulations aim to mimic the composition of natural tears more closely.

Eye drops or ointments containing steroids (corticosteroids) or NSAIDs can be prescribed to reduce inflammation associated with conditions like uveitis, keratitis, or severe dry eye. These medications help alleviate redness, swelling, and discomfort.

Applying warm compresses to the closed eyelids helps soften hardened oils in the meibomian glands, improving the quality of the tear film and reducing symptoms related to dry eyes.

These tiny, biocompatible devices are inserted into the tear ducts to block drainage partially or completely. By retaining tears on the ocular surface longer, they help maintain moisture and alleviate dryness.

In severe or refractory cases, surgical interventions like punctual occlusion (closing the tear ducts), amniotic membrane transplantation, or other procedures might be considered. These are typically reserved for specific situations under the guidance of an eye specialist.

The severity of the ocular surface disease guides the intensity of treatment. Mild cases might require simple remedies like lubricating eye drops or environmental modifications, while moderate to severe cases might necessitate prescription medications, specialized treatments like punctal plugs, or even surgical interventions.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the typical symptoms of ocular surface diseases?

Common symptoms include dryness, redness, irritation, excessive tearing, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, a sensation of having a foreign object in the eye, discharge, and crusting of the eyelids.

Ocular surface diseases can be caused by various factors, including aging, environmental conditions (like dry or windy climates), contact lens wear, certain medical conditions (such as autoimmune diseases), medications, occupational hazards, genetics, and previous eye surgeries or injuries.

Diagnosis involves a comprehensive eye examination by an eye care professional. This may include assessing symptoms, visual acuity testing, examining the ocular surface with specialized instruments, analyzing tear quality and quantity, and sometimes additional tests like corneal staining or imaging studies.

Yes, lifestyle adjustments like using humidifiers, taking breaks during screen time, avoiding smoke, and practicing good eye hygiene can significantly help manage ocular surface diseases by reducing irritation and improving eye comfort.

If you’re experiencing persistent eye discomfort, vision changes, or any concerning symptoms related to your eyes, it’s important to seek prompt medical attention from an eye care professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.